There are different options
to be considered during the planning of a farm. One of the considerations is
how to protect one’s crop without using harmful pesticides of any kind. Through
different cultivation methods, using biological controls or reproductive controls,
different pheromones, or quarantine, pesticides do not have to be used in farming without
losing lots of the crop.
Using different cultivation methods,
plants can be developed stronger and more naturally resistant, and also predators of pests can be brought into the crop fields.
Interplanting mixtures of plants
uses alternate rows of plants to avoid a monoculture. The alternate row of planting
can provide a habitat for predators of pests to the other row. For example, molasses
grass attracts wasps that lay their eggs inside insects that destroy the stems of corn plants.
Strip cutting is similar in that only one segment of crop is harvested
at a time, leaving a better suited habitat for natural predators of pests. Timed planting, irrigation and fertilizer
are all methods of making plants stronger and healthier so they have better chances of fending off pests naturally.
|different animals used for biological control
Controls use naturally occurring disease organisms, parasites, or predators to control pests. This is especially effective when exotic species become a problem because their natural predators can be
taken from their native land and applied to kill the pest. Biological controls
are not only insects, but can also be bacteria that work to kill pests.
Controls reduce the pest population by sterilizing some of its members. In
many cases the sterile male technique is used, which sterilizes only males with radiation or chemicals because in many insect
species males mate many times while females only mate once. This must be continually
carried out or else the species will rebound quickly.
are natural substances produced by animals to stimulate a response in other members of the species usually used to attract
individuals for mating. Pheromones can be made once the specific pheromone structure
for a species is known and used to lure pests into traps, or simply sprayed into the air to confuse pests so they cannot locate
a mate. Hormones are chemicals produced
by insects to regulate their own growth. They can be made synthetically and when
present at the wrong time in an insect’s growth, they can cause it to grow abnormally or die.
is the restriction of the importation of exotic plant and animals that could contain pests. If an area is thought to contain exotic pests, the area is quarantined often requiring the destruction
of crop in that quarantined area. When quarantine fails 100’s of square
kilometers must be sprayed to kill the pest and stop a major outbreak of the exotic pest.